Review of literature on recruitment process

Closely behind the internet at 89 per cent was the use of career literature such as Prospects, Prospects Today, and GET directory Mohamed, , p. Other methods such as milk rounds and career fairs were less popular after the survey findings estimated its popularity at 45 per cent each while recruitment agencies was the least popular at 15 per cent Mohamed, , p.

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Similarly, the survey also considered the cause of variations in terms of selection methods used by employers in the UK graduate recruitment and selection industry Mohamed, , p. From the survey, the use of CVs and Cover letters was mostly preferred by small and medium-sized employers while the use of assessment centers and aptitude tests were less preferred by most employers Mohamed, , p. Shortlisting of respondents before inviting them for the interview was also revealed as one of the commonly used selection methods Mohamed, , p.

In situations where interviews were conducted, a combination of both single and panel interviews was used with variations in compositions of members in the interviewing panel Mohamed, , p. Speaking of reasons for the variations in recruiting and selection methods among the graduates, accuracy and relevancy of the selection and recruitment methods seemed to be the overriding factor Mohamed, , p.

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To that purpose, employers cited the employer application form as being the most accurate and reliable method for assessing the characteristics and qualities of potential employees Mohamed, , p. In terms of cost saving, the CV and covering letter provided the highest cost saving levels due to the ease of sending and in providing more information. Equally noteworthy was the use of interviews in gathering crucial but first information about the applicants. The two-interaction, fairness, ability to fill gaps left by other forms, and the ease of validation were cited as the factors that promoted the use of interviews in the selection process Mohamed, , p.

This strategy was immensely popular in the UK some two decades ago before the expansion and development of the information age. Additionally, companies advertise and promote the available employment opportunities directly to the participating students. Many a time, the associated companies involved in these milk rounds had periodic graduate trainee programs that were specifically developed and designed to absorb fresh graduates, train them, and provide the requisite exposure to issues relating to the business world. Career services such as university outreach programmes and linkages were responsible for organizing the trade fairs in liaison with particular companies.

However, this method slowly lost its popularity due to technological advancements and increased use of the internet. Most companies have created web-based recruitment strategies such as CV databases, job boards, and recruiting agencies.

Review of Literature | Recruitment | Employment

Companies have even gone to an extent of using the internet for job advertising, filling online application forms, and even conducting online tests such aptitude tests Mohamed, , p. The current employees within the organization can act as a rich source of providing linkages to potential recruits. They might hold vital information about graduates who can match the available position within the organization and such individuals might not be in a position of responding to normal recruitment methods Shiona, This can be attributed to the fact that most of such employees might be occupied in other jobs and might not be actively searching for job placements.

However, they might be enticed to look for other available employment opportunities if the right opportunity presents itself along the way. Such a strategy can be encouraged by offering bonuses to employees who provide leads through referrals. This involves the use of graduate recruitment literature such as GET Directories, and Prospects of the UK because these brochures are direct targets for most graduates.

Organizational recruitment brochures are also availed to participants during graduate recruitment fairs. Other forms that are still increasingly used by prospective employers and companies include advertisement in local dailies and newspaper whereby job adverts are placed on the adverts and targets potential applicants due to the increased velocity of their circulation and area of coverage.

Although it can be related to the above-mentioned forms of job recruitment methods and techniques , advertisements form an ideal method that is increasingly utilized by employers to market their job vacancies and openings. Adverts are often placed on local newspapers, and online platforms.

Majority of adverts are found on job websites because job seekers frequently visit such websites. This involves maintaining a job filling system or job database for prospective employers using resumes and CVs that have been collected over extended periods.

Once a job opening avails itself within the organization, the people responsible for recruiting services visit the database and select potential employees from the available list.


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Recruiting agencies specialize in the provision of job recruitment initiatives whereby they screen job applicants are subjected to tests relative to the positions they have applied for, based on their skills and qualifications. The costs of utilizing services from the recruiting agency might be high but they offer the best services in terms of selecting the ideal candidates for particular positions Roberts, The long-term rewards are often advantageous to the hiring organization.

This recruitment method is one of the most essential strategies of filling up available vacancies because the current employees within an organization can be suited to fill up positions that have opened up within their organizations. This employee matching strategy reduces the costs associated with other traditional hiring methods. Hiring employees from within enables a company to obtain increased value in terms of employee relation benefits.

Equally noteworthy is the idea that hired employees from within often demand lower compensation as compared to hiring employees from external sectors. Lastly, internal recruiting enables companies to decrease their expenditure turnovers through the provision of advancement opportunities for existing employees.

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Career and recruitment fairs are often ideal places for promoting entry-level jobs for fresh graduates and as well, for those individuals, who are willing to change their jobs. Responsible organs within many universities in conjunction with respective companies organize majority of recruitment and career fairs. Such places are also ideal for enabling potential employers to collect CVs and resumes to be used in future vacancies.

The mechanisms used to select graduates for various positions vary from one recruiter to the other and it depends on the type of job being offered. Commonly used mechanisms and tools include face-to-face interviews, internet, agencies, and tests, among others.

Examining the public sector recruitment and selection, in relation to job analysis in Pakistan

This is the most commonly used recruitment strategy among many employers in the graduate recruitment and selection process within the UK. Job applicants are required to appear before a panel of interviewers whereby general assessment is undertaken. During specific interview sessions, the interviews are technically focused on the examination of particular details regarding the position, job description, and personality traits.

Follow-up questions are often directed to applicants to probe deeply into more details about the applicant including his special skills, points of difference, and qualifications. Recruitment agencies are gaining increased popularity within the UK job industry particularly in the search of graduates and executive talent. This mechanism is one of the most expensive mediums irrespective of whether an organization uses the retainer or the contingency firm. Recruiting agencies specialize in the provision of job recruitment initiatives whereby they screen job applicants and subject them to tests relative to the positions they have applied based on their skills and qualifications.

Recruitment agencies are experienced in matching the qualifications of candidates faster than the speed with which other organizations are capable of achieving Roberts, Most recruiting agencies have job databases with details of thousands of applicants in addition to having a wider access to potential employees. Similarly, they have greater access to the criteria needed by the hiring companies. The internet is one of the fastest and cheapest mechanisms of recruiting workers when compared to other traditional methods of recruiting workers.

Organizations wishing to recruit workers often post their jobs to internet sites for a modest period where they remain available hours a day. Potential job applicants will be able to view the detailed information about the job opening and position being advertised and send their responses through electronic means.

Organizations will be able to screen the applications by assessing the experience of applicants, their skills, and qualifications, and matching them with the skills required in that particular job. Due to advancements in technology, online screening processes and systems are capable of performing automatic filtering of applications send to the receiving mail.

This mechanism often enables the organization to filter large volumes of job applications sent to the company. This hiring mechanism is often conducted by qualified staff and involves subjecting applicants a wide range of tests. To that purpose, psychometric testing covers varied abilities of applicants include personality profiling, ability testing, and aptitude testing. Such tests often involve two levels-A and B Sackett, and Lievens, The first level involves aptitude testing and ability testing whereas the second level B involves personality profiling.

Aptitude tests and ability tests covers a wide range of aspects that include mechanical abilities, numerical ability, verbal ability, general intelligence, sensory. This strategy often allows feedback to be offered to participants.

Recruitment And Selection Is Important For Human Resource Management

Personality profiling involves testing particular behaviors of applicants by subjecting them to things that might affect their suitability for some posts Sackett, and Lievens, Presentations involve giving applicants a particular topic and asking them to deliver a presentation on that topic within a given period.

On the other hand, group exercises encompass the division of applicants into particular groups and selecting a role-play or discussion from where every member of the group will be expected to contribute. At the end of the exercise, the group should be in a position of coming up with a meaningful project to enable them to acquire marks.

The interests of employers during the graduate recruitment and selection process vary from employer to employer, and depend on the type vacancy.

Literature Review: Recruitment and Selection Process

Within these factors are varied aspects such as skills, qualifications, knowledge, experience, organizational capabilities, team spirit, and resilience, among others. To this purpose, graduates should prepare extensively when called for interviews by being committed to the needs and requirements of the recruitment and selection process. Any misunderstanding should be communicated in advance. According to survey findings from Mohamed , p. Good transferable skills was more preferred to having excellent academic grades. As such, only 21 per cent of respondents argued that the level of degree qualification was more important as compared the degree subject.

However, a large percentage 87 per cent stated that the degree classification was more important than other factors. The graduate recruitment and selection process in the United Kingdom has undergone various changes over the past few decades and this is likely to bring an impact to future recruitment and selection processes. The demand for quality graduates will remain highly competitive, and the most advantaged recruiters will be those with strong recruitment policies, coupled with exceptional training and development policies.

Traditionally, organizations in the UK recruiting industry found it a lot easier to recruit candidates from the list of job applicants who accepted any form of job offering Mohamed, , p. In the contemporary UK job market, thousands of applicants can apply for vacant job positions but it becomes a difficult task to recruit the ideal candidates.

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It also refers to a canal…. Sign in Remember me for two weeks. Login with facebook Forgot your password? Scope of this Literature Review In setting the context for the research undertaken in this paper , this research limits itself to the discussion of graduate recruitment and selection process in the United Kingdom. Graduate Recruitment and Selection Graduate recruitment and selection forms an essential part in the central activities underlying the management of human resources within many organizations.

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